Tip & How-To about Computers & Internet

10 Reasons Why Personal Computers That You Must Know



The first sign of virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive making it impossible to start. This why it is a good idea to create Windows start-up disk.

Go to Start Menu-Control Panel-Add/Remove Programs and look for the start up disk tab.

Virus protection requires constant vigilance. A virus scanner requires a list of viurs signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. The signatures are stored in a DAT file. DAT files should be updated weekly or monthly from website of your antivirus software.


A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly installed software . Often the problem can be cure uninstalling the software and then reinstalling it.

Another is uninstall some programs that have file sharing components to other programs like operating system that will make your computer unbootable.

If your Windows problem crash, try entering to Safe mode. This can be done during start up and when you see the message "starting windows" press F4 and it will take you to safe mode.

Safe Mode loads a minimum of drivers. It allows you to find and fix problems that prevent Windows from loading properly.


The action of sending a document to print creates a bigger file often called a postcript file.

Printers have only small amount of memory called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. Printing a document also uses a considerable amount of CPU power that will slow down your computer's performance.

If printer is trying to print unusual characters, these might not be recognised and can crash the computer. Sometimes printers will not recover from a crash due to confusion in the buffer.

A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug the printer for 10 seconds. Booting up from a powerless state called a cold boot and it will restore your printer's default setting.


The information on a hard starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is good to defragment the hard disk every week or month to prevent a screen freeze.

Go to Start Menu-Accessories-System tools-Disk Fragmenter

Hard disk will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on C drive and find the temporary internet file folder. Delete the contents that can free a lot of space.

Empty the recycle bin every week to free some space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad sectors.

Go to Start menu-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Scan Disk


The number on reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supported to be unique for each device.

For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ7 and keyboard usually uses IRQ1. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself.

If there are lots of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is checking to the Device Manager.

Go to Start menu-Control Panel-System-Hardware-Device Manager

Often if a device has a problem yellow ' ! ' apears next to its description in the device manager.

The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it again. Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good source is www. driverguide.com.


RAM (random access memory) problems might bring on the screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and need replacement.

But fatal error cause by RAM might cause by mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70ns (nanosecond) RAM with 60ns will usually force the computer to run all the RAM at sloer speed. This will often crash the machine if the RAM is overworked.

One way to solve this problem is to enter to BIOS setting and increase the wait state of the RAM. This can make it more stable. Another way to troubleshoot is is to rearrange the RAM Chips on motherboard, or take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling RAM try not to touch the gold connections as they can easily damage.

Parity error messages also refer to RAM. Modern chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (Non-ECC). It is best not to mix the two types as this can cause trouble.

EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but not connected to bad ram. This may be due to free memory often linked to old DOS based programs.

7. BIOS settings

Every motherboard is supplied with range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access these settings is to press F2 or delete button during the first few seconds on a boot up.

Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that appear on the screen so that you can revert the setting if you change it and computer becomes more unstable.

A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the RAM. Older EDO (extended data out) RAM has a CAS latency of 3. Newer SDRAM has a CAS latency of 2. Setting the wrong figure can cause the RAM to lock up and freeze the computer's display.

Microsoft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow the windows to allocate the IRQ numbers ( make sure the BIOS setting for the Plug and Play OS is switched to 'yes" to allow Windows to do this).


Fatal OE exceptions errors and VXD errors are often caused by video card problems. These can be resolved easily by reducing the resolution of the video display.

Go to Start menu-Setting-Control Panel-Display-Settings

Here you should slide the screen area bar to the left. Take a look at the colour setting on the left of that Window. For most desktops, high colour 16-bit depth is adequate.

If the screen freezes or you experience system lockups, it might due to video card. Make sure it does not have a hardware conflict.

Go to Start Menu- Setting-Control Panel-System-Device Manager

Here select the + beside Display adapter. A line of text describing your video card should appear.

Select by making it blue and press the properties-Resouces and select each line in the Windoe. Look for a message that says No Conflicts.

If you have video card hardware conflict, you will see it here. Be careful at this point and make note of everything you do in case you make things worse.

The best way to resolve hardware conflicts is to uncheck the Use Automatic Setting box and hit the change setting button. You are searching for a setting that will display no conflicts message.

Another useful way to resolve video problems is to

Go to Start Menu-Setting-Control Panel-System-Performance-Graphics

Here you should move the hardware acceleration slider to the left. As ever, the most common cause of the problems relating to graphics cards is old or faulty drivers ( a driver is a small piece of software used by computer to communicate with a device)

Look up your video card's manufacturer on the internet and seach for the most recent drivers for it.


CPU (central processing units) are usually equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails or if the CPU gets old it may start to overheat and generate a particular kind of error called kernel error. This common problem in chips that have been overclocked to operate highspeeds that they are supposed to.

One remedy is to get bigger fan and install it on the top of the cpu. Some special cooling fans / heat sinks are available also.


With all the new construction goind on around the world, the steady supply of electricity has become disrupted. A power surge or spike can crash a computer as easily as a power cut.

The solution is to use UPS (uninterrupted power supply) to give you clean power when there is electricity and will give you a few minutes to perform a controlled shutdown in case of a power cut.

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4 Answers

example of computer viruses

virus can be many tyoes as file virus, hidden virus, boot sector virus and other types of virus

Jul 05, 2011 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

kinds of computer virus

from your question, what are the kinds of computer viruses, here is the detailed explanation:

Computermag-glass_10x10.gif viruses are generally defined as a program inputted into a computer that allows replication of the program installed. As it replicates, the program intentionally infects the computer, typically without even the user knowing about the damage being done. A virus, unlike worms or Trojan horses, needs an aid to transfer them to computers. Viruses usually take a large amount of computer memory, resulting into system crashes. Viruses are categorized to several parts based on its features.
Macro Viruses A macro virus, often scripted into common application programs such as Word or Excel, is spread by infecting documents. Macro viruses are known to be platform-independent since the virus itself are written in language of the application and not the messagebox_info.png operating system. When the application is running, this allows the macro virus to spread amongst the operating systemsmag-glass_10x10.gif. There are thousands of macro viruses that exists, and each are considered major threats. Examples of these viruses are: Melissa.A and Bablas. pc.
Network Viruses Network viruses rapidly spreads through a Local Network Area ( messagebox_info.png LAN), and sometimes throughout the internet. Generally, network viruses multiply through shared resources, i.e., shared drives and folders. When the virus infects a computer, it searches through the network to attack its new potential prey. When the virus finishes infecting that computer, it moves on to the next and the cycle repeats itself. The most dangerous network viruses are Nimda and SQLSlammer.
Logic Bombs The messagebox_info.png logic bomb virus is a piece of code that are inputted into a software system. When a certain and specific condition is met, such as clicking on an internet browser or opening a particular file, the logic bomb virus is set off. Many programmers set the malicious virus off during days such as April Fools Day or Friday the 13th. When the virus is activated, then various activities will take place. For example, files are permanently deleted.
Companion Viruses Companion viruses takes advantage of MS- messagebox_info.png DOS. This virus creates a new file with typically the messagebox_info.png .COM extensions, but sometimes the .EXD extension as well. When a user manually types in a program they desire without adding .EXE or any other specific extention, DOS will make the assumption that the user want the file with the extension that comes first in alphabetical order, and thus running the virus. The companion virus is rare among Windows XP computers as this particular operating system does not use the MS-DOS.
Boot Sector Viruses messagebox_info.png Boot sector viruses generally hide in the boot sector, either in the bootable disk or the messagebox_info.png hard drive. Unlike most viruses, this virus does not harm the files in the hard disk, but harm the hard disk itself. Boot sector viruses are uncommon at this day and age because these viruses are spread rapidly by floppy disks and not on CD-ROMs.
Multipartite Viruses Multipartite viruses are spreaded through infected media and usually hides in the memory. Gradually, the virus moves to the boot sector of the hard drive and infects executable files on the hard drive and later across the computer system

Oct 04, 2010 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

i cant identify the prolem

It looks like you may have a boot sector virus. A boot sector virus is one that infects the first sector, i.e. the boot sector, of a floppy disk or hard drive. Boot sector viruses can also infect the MBR. All disks and hard drives are divided into small sectors. The first sector is called the boot sector and contains the Master Boot Record (MBR). The MBR contains the information concerning the location of partitions on the drive and reading of the bootable operating system partition.

When disinfecting a boot sector virus, the system should always be booted from a known clean system disk. On a DOS-based PC, a bootable system disk can be created on a clean system running the exact same version of DOS as the infected PC. From a DOS prompt, type:
    SYS C:\ A:\
and press enter. This will copy the system files from the local hard drive (C:\) to the floppy drive (A:\).
If the disk has not been formatted, the use of FORMAT /S will format the disk and transfer the necessary system files. On Windows 3.1x systems, the disk should be created as described above for DOS-based PC's. On Windows 95/98/NT systems, click Start | Settings | Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs and choose the Startup Disk tab. Then click on "Create Disk". Windows 2000 users should insert the Windows 2000 CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive, click Start | Run and type the name of the drive followed by bootdisk\makeboot a: and then click OK. For example:
    d:\bootdisk\makeboot a:
Follow the screen prompts to finish creating the bootable system disk. In all cases, after the creation of the bootable system disk, the disk should be write protected to avoid infection.

Once the OS loads, run your anti-virus software and it should clean the virus.

Should this not help, I'm afraid the only other alternative would be to reformat the HDD and reinstall XP again from a bootable disc.

Hope that helps..

May 07, 2008 | Computers & Internet

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