Tip & How-To about Computers & Internet

Graphic Rendering The Real World

The real world is filled with complex objects: curves, textures, shadows, and especially the commonplace flaws found in everyday structures that make them real. The challenge for game developers is to duplicate these objects in a realistic manner. A character's face shouldn't look perfect, because there are always small blemishes, wrinkles, and other imperfections. Also, the physics of movement and interaction between objects in the real world have to be faithfully duplicated.

So the challenge for video card manufacturers is to create hardware that is able to support all of the programmatic techniques developed to present a realistically rendered world within a computer. When comparing video cards, you'll often run into terms such as bump mapping, anisotropic filtering, bilinear filtering, MIP mapping, etc. All of these (and others) are techniques implemented in the hardware that let game developers create realistic objects in their games. Let's take a very quick tour of what some of these terms mean.

GPU – Graphics Processing Unit; as video cards become increasingly complex, it pays to offload a lot of the heavy-duty visual processing from the computer's main CPU to what amounts to a mini-CPU on the video card. The video card's GPU does a lot of the computational heavy lifting required to render 3D graphics.

DDR – The term DDR is often used to describe a video card's memory. DDR stands for "double-data rate" and is a type of SDRAM used in video cards today. Double-data rate means this type of memory is able to move data on both the falling and rising edges of the clock cycle. DDR1 SDRAM is the most common memory in use with video card technology today and is able to move data in 2-bit chunks.

Again, the purpose here is to offload graphics rendering tasks out of the computer's main memory and CPU, hence the idea to equip video cards with loads of memory. Nowadays, a cutting-edge video card should pack 256MB of DDR1 or DDR2 SDRAM. Unlike DDR1, DDR2 memory moves data in 4-bit chunks, so data transfer performance is doubled. The newest video cards on the market today are beginning to adopt DDR2 memory.

RAMDAC – Your computer only understands digital, and your eyes can only see in analog. The video card RAMDAC's job is to bridge the gap between the digital and analog worlds and let the computer display analog images on the monitor. Faster RAMDACs (RAMDAC speeds are measured in megahertz) enable the computer to display higher resolutions on a monitor without annoying flicker.

3D Terminology – Today's video cards render highly realistic 3D images. To do this, video cards must faithfully reproduce what gamers see in the real world, including lifelike textures and realistic movements. There are a number of techniques implemented in both hardware and software that let video cards generate realistic 3D images. Let's take a look at a few of the most important:

Z-buffering – A technique implemented in the video card's memory that is used to store information about pixel location as fluid scenes are rendered. For example, if a pixel moves behind another, that information is stored in the Z-buffer.

Texel – Stands for "texture element." A texel is a graphics unit similar to a pixel, except it is used to define 3D graphics. Think of a texel as the base unit that defines 3D graphics.

Fogging – Technique used to simulate haze, fog, or smoke.

Trilinear filtering – Video cards use texture maps to apply textures, such as skin, surfaces, etc., to simplified models of objects called primitives. Essentially, these primitives are "colored" with textures stored in 2D images called texture maps. Textures must not only look realistic, they must also be adjusted, if need be, according to the position and movement of the object. Trilinear filtering is used to make this mapping appear more realistic.

Full-screen anti-aliasing – Anti-aliasing is used to smooth out transitions between pixels with different colors and reduce image "jaggies." This technique minimizes the jaggies at all resolutions.

Programmable vertex and pixel shading – These techniques allow the rendering of realistic lighting and shadow effects. For example, ATI's SMARTSHADER technology allows the implementation of DirectX 9 floating-point programmable vertex and pixel shading. NVIDIA's version is called CineFX.

DirectX 10 – This is Microsoft's latest version of the DirectX APIs that let video developers programmatically exploit the capabilities of existing video hardware. The API lets software developers quickly create games without having to know the intimate details of each

Posted by on

Computers & Internet Logo

Related Topics:

Related Questions:

1 Answer

can you please help to write a metaphor


right straight from Google

met·a·phor
?med??f?r,?med??f?r/
noun

  1. a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.""I had fallen through a trapdoor of depression," said Mark, who was fond of theatrical metaphors"
    synonyms: figure of speech, image, trope, analogy, comparison, symbol, word painting/picture "the profusion of metaphors in her everyday speech has gotten pretty tiresome"
    • a thing regarded as representative or symbolic of something else, especially something abstract."the amounts of money being lost by the company were enough to make it ametaphor for an industry that was teetering"

Sep 11, 2016 | VG Dauphine Edition Textured Leather...

1 Answer

Cant even run wow >.> ok, I just bought a gaming


Whats your FPS in wow? (Can be seen by hovering your mouse over the Game Menu sign (the questionmark)).

Is it only low in cities with a lot of players or is it just low overall?

Nonetheless lowering the graphics will obviously help.

Just press Escape to enter the Game Menu, and then press System, and go to the Graphics tab.
You could lower the overall graphics by taking the slider down, but I believe the most important things you should do would be:

Multisampling: 1
Shadows: Low
View Distance: Fair or Low

I would also lower Texture Filtering and Texture resolution.

The thing is I am not entirely sure how the things will change when you use the slider, but I would definitely recommend just trying to slide all the way down at first. If the settings I mentioned above are higher than I posted, I would put them down as well.

Especially Shadows can be a real FPS killer.
The View Distance has no real affect and is just for the looks.

Your PC should be able to run WoW fairly well if you adjust the settings. If you wish to increase the performance without lowering the settings I'd recommend buying some more RAM though.

Anyway, tl:dr:

Press Escape to enter the menu, click System -> Graphics -> turn the slider all the way down to Low. Make sure the shadow settings is in fact on low as well. All the settings under the Effects tab can all clear up some fps if lowered/disabled.

Sep 20, 2013 | Blizzard Entertainment World of Warcraft...

1 Answer

what is the importance of natural vegetation in our life


Hi.

The best answer for this is as below, copied from http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090119035333AAao1yP


Vegetation or natural vegetation supports critical functions in the biosphere, at all possible spatial scales. First, vegetation regulates the flow of numerous biogeochemical cycles, most critically those of water, carbon, and nitrogen; it is also of great importance in local and global energy balances. Such cycles are important not only for global patterns of vegetation but also for those of climate.

Second, vegetation strongly affects soil characteristics, including soil volume, chemistry and texture, which feed back to affect various vegetational characteristics, including productivity and structure.

Third, vegetation serves as wildlife habitat and the energy source for the vast array of animal species on the planet and, ultimately, to those that feed on these. Vegetation is also critically important to the world economy, particularly in the use of fossil fuels as an energy source, but also in the global production of food, wood, fuel and other materials.

Perhaps most importantly, and often overlooked, global vegetation including algal communities has been the primary source of oxygen in the atmosphere, enabling the aerobic metabolism systems to evolve and persist.

Lastly, vegetation is psychologically important to humans, who evolved in direct contact with, and dependence on, vegetation, for food, shelter, and medicine.

Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative.

Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems, Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas-including the most developed urban sites-all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities.

Anthropologists believe that the Stone Age peoples and hunter-gatherers relied on wildlife, both plant and animal, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by early human hunters.

Many wildlife species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, and they and their products may be used as sacred objects in religious rituals. For example, eagles, hawks and their feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to Native Americans as religious objects

All wild populations of living things have many complex intertwining links with other living things around them. Large herbivorous animals such as the hippopotamus have populations of insectivorous birds that feed off the many parasitic insects that grow on the hippo. Should the hippo die out so to will these groups of birds, leading to further destruction as other species dependent on the birds are affected. Also referred to as a Domino effect, this series of chain reactions is by far the most destructive process that can occur in any ecological community.

Today, hunting, fishing, or gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas, hunting and non-commercial fishing are mainly seen as a sport or recreation, with the edible meat as mostly a side benefit.

See the links below for additional information. Hope this helps. Source(s): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildlife

Feb 02, 2011 | Computers & Internet

1 Answer

Shadow Problems


Cf my issue above on LE32R87BD The repair guy came here two times and finally changed the LCD panel which is very expensive. So far, it is working again properly.

Mar 28, 2008 | Samsung LE32R74BDX 32 in. HD-Ready LCD...

Not finding what you are looking for?

215 people viewed this tip

Ask a Question

Usually answered in minutes!

Top Computers & Internet Experts

Doctor PC
Doctor PC

Level 3 Expert

7733 Answers

kakima

Level 3 Expert

102366 Answers

David Payne
David Payne

Level 3 Expert

14161 Answers

Are you a Computer and Internet Expert? Answer questions, earn points and help others

Answer questions

Loading...