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If your bike has a final belt drive, with the engine off, put the transmission in gear and try to roll the bike. If the bike rolls, you've probably got a busted belt or the splines in the front pulley are stripped out. You may even see a little oil drip out from behind the inner primary. You didn't say what year or model bike you have so this is just a guess.
Put the bike in gear with the engine not running. Try to push the bike. If the bike rolls freely, the final drive belt is broken. Check the tension on the belt. The only other thing that I can think of is the final drive belt front pulley has stripped out. The early belt drive bikes, the front belt drive pulley was very thin in the area where the splines were cut for the final drive gear. In 1994, Harley can out with an improved front pulley and offered a retrofit kit to replace the earlier models. When the front pulley strips the splines out, it will not drive the rear drive belt. The final drive gear simply turns inside the center bore of the pulley.
To change the belt on your Softail, you'll have to pull the outer primary cover, the entire primary drive mechanism, the inner primary, the starter, the exhaust system (to get the starter off), the rear wheel, and the swing arm. If the pulley is bad but the belt is good, you do not have to pull the rear wheel and the swingarm.
To change the final drive belt on your Softail, you must drain the primary and pull the outer primary cover off. Then, you must take the engine sprocket, primary chain, and clutch assembly off. Then you must remove the starter and the inner primary. Then, raise the bike and remove the rear wheel and the swingarm. It's quite a job.
yes, you can replace the belt yourself but it's quite a job. You must pull the primary, the engine sprocket and clutch assembly, the starter, the inner primary, the rear wheel, and the swing arm. You'll need an air wrench to remove the engine sprocket nut and the clutch nut unless you have a "locking bar" or something to wedge into the primary chain to lock the primary up so you can retorque the engine and clutch nuts properly. The engine nut torques to 150-165 foot pounds of torque. The clutch nut has LEFT HANDED THREADS and torques to 60-80 foot pounds. Put one line of Loctite Red #271 in each nut. As long as you don't have to pull the transmission belt pulley off, this is all you need. Most of the time, you can work the belt onto the pulley. If you can't, you'll need the special socket to loosen and tighten the large nut on the pulley and a "locking device" for it as well. The nut on the front pulley torques to at least 150 foot pounds as well and is LEFT HANDED threads as well.
There are several seals that can leak in this area. You say you replaced the mainshaft seal in the back of the primary. I've seen a lot of people replace this seal only to have it start leaking immediately. The reason was that they didn't know you must lubricate the seal before you reinstall the primary cover. When you put the primary cover on with the seal dry, when the engine starts up, the mainshaft immediately goes to 1000 RPM or higher with no lubrication on the seal. The friction burns the lip of the seal up before the lubrication in the primary can get there. It only take a second, literally.
Other seals that can cause leaks in this area are the large final drive gear seal in the face of the transmission behind the front belt pulley and the "Quad" seal that is inside the transmission. The Quad seal is almost like an O-ring. It's purpose is to prevent transmission lubricant from seeping out through the splines of the final drive gear. If the front sprocket splines wear and the sprocket gets the slightest bit loose, the compression on the Quad seal will be lost and the tranny will leak. The tale tell sign on this leak is that the transmission will leak a spot of oil about the size of a quarter or a bit bigger when you park the bike. If you wipe up the spot, it won't leak anymore until you either ride the bike or simply start the engine. Then it'll leak that quarter sized spot and stop. Check your lube level in your transmission.
Whenever I pull the inner primary and the belt on a Big Twin, I replace ALL the seals. Make sure you lubricate the lips on the seals so they don't cook before lubrication can get to the seal.
Not a common problem, but not unusual either. You'll need a new belt $100 plus, and a lot has to be removed form the bike to replace the broken one.
maybe inner primary (can't remember)