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Yes, you can use most any petroleum based oil that you want. I'd avoid the use of synthetic oil on that bike as it may cause the clutch to slip. The clutch discs in those early bikes are not very heavy and slip easily. A lot of guys just use straight 30 weight petroleum based engine oil.
Your bike came from the factory with H-D Syn3 20W50 synthetic engine oil in it. Todays petroleum based and synthetic engine oils are compatible with each other so there are no issues there. Check the oil level with your bike on the side stand. There should be two lines on the dipstick. The upper line is the "FULL HOT" line and the lower line is the "FULL COLD" line. As long as the oil level is between the two lines, do not add oil. Resist the temptation to "top off the oil tank". Do not overfill the oil tank.
I'm not a Twin Cam mechanic but I think there are two oil drains on the bottom of the transmission. The oil tank for your bike is on the bottom of the transmission. It looks like there is a drain on the bottom of the pan and one on the front. The oil should be changed every 3000 miles if you're using petroleum based oil. Synthetic oil can go a bit longer. The primary oil and transmission oil should be changed every 5000 miles or so. The primary drains from a pipe plug underneath the primary back near the rear of gearcase. The transmission drains from a plug underneath.
Your bike came with H-D Syn 3 , 20W50 synthetic oil from the factory. You need to stay with 20W50 oil unless you live in some extremely cold or hot climate. For ambient temps running anywhere from 0° F. to 100° F., 20W50 is fine. You can use either petroleum based or synthetic oil. Other brands of oil that you can use are Mobil V-Twin, Amsoil, Revtech, and many others but go online and check for each manufacturer's recommendation. Harley says that you must use an oil that is rated for use in diesel engines due to the high pressure additives that these oil contain.
Okay I don't understand why on this earth would you not want to use a synthetic oil in your GL1800. Synthetic oils have proven themselves for longevity, superior performance and the list goes on. You are riding one of the best if not the best performance touring motorcycle in the world why destroy it with an off brand filter and petroleum based oils? Sorry can't help you with a "best" non synthetic oil or filter for your Goldwing.
Well it depends on the ambient temperature. Your bike sounds like it's in about the correct temp range on the oil temperature. This is why Harley went to using synthetic oil. It has a higher breakdown temperature than petroleum based oil.
If changing your filter as well as the oil, your bike should take three quarts of oil as best as I know. Always check your oil using the dipstick when you change it. Change the oil and filter and add three quarts, start the engine and run it just a bit, two or three minutes. Check the oil level with the dipstick. The dipstick has two marks on it. The upper mark is 'FULL HOT" while the lower mark is 'FULL COLD'. Make sure your oil level is between the two marks and never overfill.
As for regular petroleum based oil or synthetic, you're 2001 machine came from the factory with H-D's Syn 3 20W50 synthetic oil in the engine, the primary, and the transmission. I'd recommend sticking with the synthetic oil but it must meet H-D's specification. Not all synthetics do. Matter of fact, very few do. Some that do is Amsoil, Royal Purple, and Mobil V-Twin.
Harley-Davidson recommends their 20W50 petroleum based oil for the engine. You can use the H-D Syn 3 20W50 synthetic oil in the engine but I don't recommend it in the primary/transmission area. You can use any 20W50 oil as long as the API rating has a "C" rating for use in diesel engines. Look for the round circle somewhere on the container that had the API initials in it. It should say something like "SJ/CG". What you're looking for the "C" rating. If you wish to use a specific brand of oil, got to their website and look for their recommendations.
In the transmission, Harley recommends their Semi-Synthetic Primary and Transmission lubricant for Sportsters. The lube lubricates both the primary and the transmission on the Sportster. I don't recommmend full synthetic transmission lube on any bike built before 1995 as it will cause the gears to run noisey. In 1995, Harley changed the back cut on the gears and this made use of full synthetic lube more quiet running. Of course, you can use the full synthetic from a lubrication view point. It's just a bit noisey for my taste.
Whatever you use, make sure you go online and check the manufacturer's suggestion for use.
Your Sportster holds three quarts of Harley Syn3 oil. If you are not going to use Harley Davidson brand oil, use any good oil that is 20W50 weight and is rated for using in a diesel engine. Here in the States, it's a "C" rating. Such as SJ/CG4 on the API code. You can use either petroleum based oil or synthetic. Use one quart of Syn3 or Harley semi-synthetic primary and transmission lube. Any dealer should be able to order you an owner's manual. If there is not a dealer near you, find a friend that can obtain the book and mail it to you.