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engine cranking do you have spark at the plugs and fuel injector pulse? I don't know what testing you have done? I am trying to decide if more than one issue? Did you check voltage and ground at fuel pump connector, engine cranking? Initial prime is one thing but after that, if no rpm signal, no spark--no fuel injector pulse--no fuel pump. W/o rpm signal computer won't ground the asd relay. Any applicable trouble codes?
In my opinion, you can't bench test a fuel pump, I've seen faulty fuel pumps that would run up a storm on the bench but make no pressure when in the gas tank.
check your pump if you replaced the pre pump in your fuel tank you must check the seal .remove the plastic ring check the base at the entry to your pump is flat .it may be leaking air due to your seal not seated in correctly.
Does the pump run? If not does the pump get power for 1 second when the key is turned to run position? If it does have power then the answer is very obvious, the pump is defective inside the fuel tank or on the rail which ever you have.
The main fuel pump in a Volvo is really well built and rarely fails(Bosch simply makes great fuel pumps). A good survival trick if you think a main fuel pump might be bad... give it a quick tap with a wrench. For best results, if possible, tap the pump when cranking the engine (while power is going to the pump). If the pump is bad, often the tap will make it come to life and it may stay running until you shut it off. This trick can get you back on the road and get you home in an emergency. If it's a bad fuel pump relay, this will NOT work as there will be no power going to your pump. If this is the case, you might try the below relay bypass "jump" trick to get power going to the pump. TESTING YOUR FUEL PUMP How to "JUMP" the fuel pump circuit at your Volvo 240 fuse panel:The fastest method to make the main fuel pump run (bypassing the Fuel Pump Relay) is by jumping two circuits at the fuse panel (left side driver's kick panel).
You can make a jumper from a wire with stripped ends or even a straightened paperclip. Jump the circuits on the right side of the fuses for best results For a 1979-84 240, jump fuse circuit #5 to #7. For a 1985-93 240, jump fuse circuit #4 to #6.
If the main fuel pump doesn't begin running when jumped (you should definitely hear it humming), you either have a faulty fuel pump or faulty wiring to the pump (bad wiring is really common under an old 240, near the pump). This test of course assumes your battery is good. If one of the fuses blows during this test, the pump circuit wiring is shorting to ground somewhere between the fuse panel and the pump.
turn ignition key go back of car you should be able to hear a humming sound under neath car if you don't hear anything your fuel pump is bad or disconnect fuel line from injectors and try to crank car if the area is wet pump is working
Spray some gum out in air flow sensor and see if it starts up.
If it does you need a new fuel pump. To confirm look for schrater valve on fuel rail, put a rag around it and wear eye protection. Push valve and see if fuel shots out while the vehicle IS NOT RUNNING. I fuel does not shoot out you have no residual pressure and need a new pump.
The other thing is to place key in ignition and put it to on position you shoulsd hear a buzzing sound from pump.
Did the engine just quit going down the road? or was it parked and then would not start? Did it have fuel before you replaced the filter? Did you check all the fuses in the fuse box. I think 2 of the fuses is marked ECM, check both Fuel pump relay? swap it with another relay in the fuse box. You should hear the pump come on for 2 seconds when you turn the key on, do you? If not as you are cranking the engine have someone rap on the bottom of the fuel tank with a mallet or block of wood, or hammer and see of the pump will run. If that gets it running, the pump is bad and will need replacement.