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The brake lining's have worn away, the squealing was metal to metal (worn pad against metal disc) The worn pad will have damaged the brake disc. Very dangerous. You will now have to have new brake pads and discs fitted to BOTH front wheels to put it right. Good luck
The maximum machining dimension is cast into the surface of the drum. On disc brakes it is cast into the rotor. Using that information you can determine the correct shoes/pads for you vehicle.
To remove the drums you simply have to remove the wheel. If the drums have never been off before remove and discard the sheet metal nuts that are over the wheel studs. They are only there to hold the drums from falling off during assembly. After that you can pry on both sides with prybars or large screwdrivers against the drum backing plate to work the drum off. I might take some effort if the shoes have worn a groove into the drums.
You need to have the front rotors turned or replaced. Take a set of dial calipers and measure the rotor thickness. compare that to the specs on the rotor and that will let you know if you can turn them. Put new pads on and make sure to lube the slider pins.
That metal backing is a dust and dirt deflector. Often when it's removed it bends a little and contacts the rotor. Yes, you can stick a screwdriver or any flat piece of metal between the two and move it a bit to regain clearance. Not a bad install but I'm surprised that the tech did not notice it and do anything about it.
Rear brake shoes as fitted to drum brakes can typically last up to 60k miles with periodic adjustments, but you have rear disc brakes and the shoes will typically last half of that.
Also, modern brake pads no longer contain asbestos and are now made using harder metallic compounds; the direct result is that brake discs (US=rotors) are also considered to be consumable items as they are worn down by the harder pads. It's not unusual to have to replace front discs every other pad change and rear ones with every pad change; in both cases the mileage will typically be around 30k miles on most models.
On the back ot the caliper ( holds Brake pads) there are two bolt or Screws ( usually allen heads) loosen those screws and remove them. pull off the caliper. check your rotor check for grooves and you might want to take them to get turned ( cleans the surface by taking a thin layer of metal off.
Using a C clamp or Disk brake pad tool carefully and slowly compress the piston back into the caliper....Slowly. Pace ne break pads in caliper and slide it back on to the rotor... replacing the bolts tighten them up...replace tire and you should be good to go. Remember to pump you breaks to get the pads to adjust will be soft at first. there should be no need to bleed the brakes.
Depends somewhat if it's a front rotor or a rear rotor. The most common problem will be "corrosion" that's binding the two metal parts together. If you are not trying to reuse the rotor after turning (many are throwaways now adays) take a large hammer and bang the outer edge of the rotor. The vibration should cause the corrosion to break apart, and the rotor should pull away. If your planning on re-using the rotor after turning use a large rubber mallet.
The front rotors have about a 3/4 inch common surface between the rotor and the wheel hub. You may need to bang on the backside of the rotor as you slowly turn the rotor in order to cause the two parts to slide apart. It can be a slow process, but you should see some movement (but it must be even movement around the entire rotor. The back rotors have far less common surface and a few good waps should break the parts free.