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What is the definition of controlled variable?

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In control theory, controlled variable is the variable that the controller attempts to control. Imagine a thermostat that is controlling the temperature in your room using a heater. The temperature is the controlled variable. The controller knows the target room temperature it should achieve and hold, and attempts to turn the heater ON and OFF (alternately it can regulate the power that is fed into the heater) in a manner so that the controlled variable will come and stay close to its target value regardless the heat-flow out and in of the room through walls, doors, windows, etc.

Posted on Nov 07, 2014

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P1388 code present


P1388 OBD-II Trouble Code references Variable Cam Timing Overretarded Bank 2, that is the most common definition for the P1388..

Feb 10, 2016 | Mahindra Scorpio Cars & Trucks

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What is the definition for controlled variable?


You have either constants or variables. Constants are things that does not change. Time is a constant - you can't move forward or backward in time.
Variables are parameters that change. Some variables are fixed, others can be controlled.
A controlled variable is a variable that can be changed at will or according to circumstance.
For example, if you have a radio with a fixed coil / tuning capacitor which can receive only one station, the variable (radio stations) cannot be controlled, it is fixed, therefore a fixed variable. A normal radio can be tuned to different stations, therefore a controlled variable.
The engine on a car has a controlled variable speed. A normal light bulb is controlled by a fixed voltage, until you build in a dimmer switch, which now makes the voltage variable, and controlled.

Nov 07, 2014 | Cars & Trucks

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What is a independent varible


An independent variable is the variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate. It is usually what you think will affect the dependent variable. In some cases, you may not be able to manipulate the independent variable. It may be something that is already there and is fixed, something you would like to evaluate with respect to how it affects something else, the dependent variable like color, kind, time.
Example: You are interested in how stress affects heart rate in humans. Your independent variable would be the stress and the dependent variable would be the heart rate. You can directly manipulate stress levels in your human subjects and measure how those stress levels change heart rate.

Hope this helps you.
Regards,
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Oct 19, 2014 | Cars & Trucks

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P1332


Possible sources of fault code are as follows. The code is a fault in the VVT system (variable valve timing)

Faulty position
-camshaft belt has jumped out of place on the cogs
-defective reset valve
-mechanical fault in the Variable valve timing (VVT) unit
Faulty control
-defective camshaft position (CMP) sensor
Control too slow
-low oil pressure
-poor oil quality
-defective reset valve
-mechanical fault in the Variable valve timing (VVT) unit

Mar 27, 2014 | 2001 Volvo C70

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Prius 2006 diagnostic code poo16


Here is the definition.
The crank and cam sensors are telling the computer the cam is not in the place it should be.

P0016 TOYOTA Description The Engine Control Module (ECM) controls the Oil Control Valve (OCV) to regulate the intake camshaft angle. As a result of the angle change, the engine timing is advanced or not. Optimizing engine timing will help the engine improve torque and fuel economy, and the exhaust emissions decrease under overall driving conditions. The Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system includes the Oil Control Valve (OCV) and VVT controller. The ECM detects the actual intake valve timing using signals from the camshaft and crankshaft position sensors, and performs feedback control.
Read more: http://engine-codes.com/p0016_toyota.html#ixzz24sNXERyL

Aug 28, 2012 | 2010 Toyota Prius

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P1556


17964/P1556 - Charge Pressure Control: Negative Deviation

Possible Symptoms
  • Reduced power output
  • Limp mode
Possible Causes
  • Boost Pressure too Low
  • Hoses/Pipes incorrect connected, disconnected or leaking
  • Charger Pressure Control defective
    • VNT (variable nozzle turbo): nozzles stuck
  • Solenoid Valve for Boost Pressure Control (N75) defective
Possible Solutions
  • Check Hoses/Pipes to/between Components
  • Check Solenoid Valve for Boost Pressure Control (N75)
  • Check / Clean / Replace Charge Pressure Control
    • Check / Clean mechanism for variable nozzles

Aug 27, 2012 | 2005 Skoda Octavia 1.9

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What is a variable cam wheel-exhaust side


Is this the definition of a fault you received and the check engine light is on? YOUR ENGINE HAS A SYSTEM THAT ALLOWS THE ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL COMPUTER (CALLED THE PCM) TO CHANGE THE VALVE TIMING BY MOVING THE CAMSHAFT DRIVE WHEEL PULLEY FORWARDS OR BACKWARDS TO ADVANCE OR ****** THE CAMSHAFT POSTION WHICH IN TURN CHANGES THE TIME IN RELATION TO THE PISTON POSITION IN THE CYLINDER THAT THE VAVLES OPEN AND CLOSE, THIS IS DONE FOR BETTER POWER AND INCREASDED FUEL ECOMONY. THESE WHEELS STICK DUE IN MOST CASES TO GUMMED UP PARTS FROM DIRTY OIL, BUT NOT ALWAYS. THE ACTUATORS ARE MOVED USING COMPUTER CONTROLLED ACTUATORS THAT ALLOW OIL PRESSURE TO MOVE THE HYDRAULICLLY CONTROLLED CAM SPROCKET WHEEL.

Oct 03, 2011 | 2001 Volvo S40

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I need to know how to set thte timing chain


Discoverd this indepth expalaination of process steps involved in the installation of the timing chain from an ASE certified technician. I hope this helps. See the repair manual on the link below.<br /> <br /> Link: <a href="http://www.2carpros.com/forum/2002-jaguar-xj8--gearbox-default-appear-on-dashboard/2000-jaguar-xj8-timing-chain-replacement-vt218070.html">http://www.2carpros.com/forum/2002-jaguar-xj8--gearbox-default-appear-on-dashboard/2000-jaguar-xj8-timing-chain-replacement-vt218070.html</a><br /> <table id="table14" style="BORDER-RIGHT: #000000 1px dashed; BORDER-TOP: #000000 1px dashed; BORDER-LEFT: #000000 1px dashed; BORDER-BOTTOM: #000000 1px dashed" bordercolordark="#000000" width="100%" bordercolorlight="#000000" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 1px" width="700"></td></tr> <tr> <td style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 1px" width="700"><span class="name" roundtrip="0" lastvisited="3">By <a name="755408"></a><b roundtrip="0" lastvisited="0">Dave H</b>,<b> </b></span><span class="postdetails" roundtrip="0" lastvisited="0">Certified ASE Technician</span></td></tr> <tr> <td style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 1px" width="100%" roundtrip="0" lastvisited="6"></td></tr> <tr> <td style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 1px" width="700"></td></tr> <tr> <td style="BORDER-LEFT-WIDTH: 1px; BORDER-BOTTOM-WIDTH: 1px; BORDER-RIGHT-WIDTH: 1px"> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2"> <span class="postbody" roundtrip="0" lastvisited="77">PRIMARY TIMING CHAINS (NON-SUPERCHARGED) <br />NOTE:The 4.0L V8 has no engine timing alignment marks on the crankshaft or camshafts. Engine timing is achieved by installing the Crankshaft Setting Peg (303-531) and Camshaft Locking Tool (303-530). With the crankshaft setting peg in position, ensure the timing flat on each camshaft is in the uppermost position before installing camshaft locking tool. Variable camshaft timing unit may also be referred to as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) unit. <br /><br />NOTE:Special Tools Required: Crankshaft Setting Peg (303-531), Camshaft Locking Tool (303-530), Chain Tensioning Tool (303-532), Primary Chain Wedge (303-533) and Variable Camshaft Timing Oil Control Unit Setting Tool (303-654). See Fig. 232-Fig. 236 . <br /><br />NOTE:"A" bank refers to the right/passenger side of the vehicle and "B" bank refers to left/driver side of the vehicle. <br /><br />NOTE:Each door glass automatically drops 12 mm when the door is opened or when the convertible top is raised or lowered. It is important that windows are lowered before battery is disconnected to allow doors to shut properly. <br /><br />Removal ("A" Bank) <br />Tips Click a link to view tip <br />Tech1Tip: special tool <br /><br /><br />Remove timing cover. See TIMING CHAIN COVER (NON-SUPERCHARGED). <br />Remove the variable camshaft timing oil control solenoid. </span><br /> <span class="postbody" roundtrip="0" lastvisited="77">Remove the variable camshaft timing oil control unit housing retaining bolts and remove the variable camshaft timing oil control unit housing. </span><br /> <span class="postbody" roundtrip="0" lastvisited="77">Remove and discard the variable camshaft timing oil control unit housing "O" rings. <br />Raise and support vehicle. Remove the bolt which secures the Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor to the flywheel housing. Remove the CKP sensor and allow it to hang free under the engine. Remove the torque converter bolts access grommet from the flywheel housing. </span><br /> <span class="postbody" roundtrip="0" lastvisited="77">Install the crankshaft damper bolt (old one) to the crankshaft, hand-tight only. Rotate crankshaft until the triangular arrow indent on the flywheel is visible through the access hole. See Fig. 144. Confirm that the timing flat on each camshaft is uppermost position. <br />Position the crankshaft so that the Crankshaft Setting Peg (303-531) engages fully into the timing slot. Install and tighten the bolt to secure the crankshaft setting peg. See Fig. 145. Remove the crankshaft damper bolt from the crankshaft and lower the vehicle. <br />Install the Camshaft Locking Tool (303-530) to the "A" bank camshafts, aligning the shafts slightly as necessary. Loosen the bolt that secures the exhaust camshaft sprocket and the bolt that secures the variable camshaft timing oil control unit. See Fig. 146. Remove camshaft locking tool. <br />Remove the primary chain tensioner bolts, primary chain tensioner and tensioner backing plate. See Fig. 147. <br />Remove the primary timing chain tensioner pivot bolt and remove the primary timing chain tensioner blade. See Fig. 148. <br />Remove the bolt which secures the primary timing chain guide. Noting the position of the primary timing chain guide, remove the primary timing chain guide from the upper retaining pin. See Fig. 149. <br />Remove the primary timing chain from the variable camshaft timing oil control unit and from the crankshaft sprocket. Clean and inspect all components. <br />Installation <br />If "B" bank timing chain was removed, see INSTALLATION. If not, go to next step. <br />If previously removed, install the timing chain sprocket to the crankshaft. The teeth of the "A" bank and the "B" bank timing chain sprockets on the crankshaft must be out of phase with each other. If they are in phase after installing, remove the sprocket, turn it on its vertical axis and reinstall sprocket. See Fig. 150. <br />Install the chain tensioning tool to the exhaust camshaft sprocket. Reposition the sprocket (and the variable camshaft timing oil control unit) for the most advantageous position for use of the tool. See Fig. 151. Remove the tool. <br />Install the primary timing chain into position over the crankshaft sprocket and the variable camshaft timing oil control unit. There must be no slack on the drive side of the primary timing chain and the sprockets must not be rotated on the camshafts, or the tensioning tool may not fit. See Fig. 152. <br />Install the primary timing chain tensioner blade to the cylinder block. See Fig. 148. Install the pivot bolt and tighten specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. <br />Push the primary timing chain tensioner piston into the tensioner body to provide clearance for installing the primary timing chain. Insert a thin rigid wire through the hole in the end of the tensioner piston to displace the ball from the non-return valve seat. See Fig. 153. With the wire in position, press the piston fully into the tensioner body. Remove the wire. <br />Install the 2 primary timing chain tensioner bolts to the primary timing chain tensioner and locate the tensioner backing-plate on to the 2 bolts. Align and install the primary timing chain tensioner to the cylinder block and to the mating slot on the rear face of the primary timing chain tensioner blade. See Fig. 147. Tighten the primary timing chain tensioner bolts to specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. <br />Use a Primary Chain Wedge (303-533), or 2 if needed, between the primary timing chain tensioner and primary timing chain tensioner blade, to take up the slack in the chain for tightening of the variable camshaft timing control unit and exhaust camshaft sprocket. See Fig. 154. <br />Using the chain tensioning tool, apply force to the tool in an counterclockwise direction to tension the chain on its drive side. See Fig. 151. While applying opposing force to the sprocket and chain, tighten the exhaust camshaft sprocket bolt to specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. <br />Using the Variable Camshaft Timing Oil Control Unit Setting Tool (303-654), rotate the variable camshaft timing oil control unit fully counterclockwise to the fully retarded position. See Fig. 155. <br />Check that the primary chain wedges are still in place. While applying opposing force to the sprocket and chain using the chain tensioning tool, tighten the variable camshaft timing oil control unit bolt to specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. Remove the chain tensioning tool and the primary chain wedges and camshaft locking tool. <br />Raise and support vehicle. Remove crankshaft setting peg. Install the CKP sensor and bolt to the flywheel housing. See Fig. 143. Tighten the CKP sensor bolt to specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. Install the access grommet to the housing and lower the vehicle. <br />WARNING:Check that the ring dowels are engaged squarely. Fully locate the assembly as much as possible by hand. Failure to follow this procedure may result in damage to the vehicle. <br /><br />Install NEW "O" rings to the variable camshaft timing oil control unit housing. Lubricate the "O" rings and the bushing. Install the variable camshaft timing oil control unit housing. See Fig. 142. Install the variable camshaft timing oil control unit housing bolts. Tighten to specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. <br />Install the variable camshaft timing oil control solenoid. See Fig. 141. Install and tighten the variable camshaft timing oil control solenoid bolt to specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. <br />Install the timing chain cover. See TIMING CHAIN COVER (NON-SUPERCHARGED). </span><br /></td></tr></tbody></table>

Aug 26, 2010 | 2001 Jaguar XJ8

1 Answer

What RSM means?


Uhm, By definition, RSM is a mathematical and statistical approach to modeling and analysis of data to which the response of interest is influenced by several variables and the objective is to optimize the response

Taken from - http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrm/2008/312753.html

Oct 19, 2009 | 1995 Lincoln Mark VIII

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