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Take the belt off, and see if that pulley wheel spins freely, If it is seized up, that is where the burning smell came from-belt was running across the seized pulley. If that wheel pulley runs the water pump, you will need to replace it.
Assuming the check engine light is not on, I would want to know what the engine temp sensor is doing. A scanner would tell you what the temp sensor is showing - if it is unplugged or there is a problem with the wiring the fans will run as a default to prevent the engine from overheating. It could be a fan relay but I doubt it. A relay usually works or not.
Well, it really sounds like you don't have enough reserve power in the
battery. You ought to be able to run that fan for 20 minutes, but still start the car. But that is a different topic.
If the switch is old, the points might be ever so lightly welding
themselves together from arcing when the fan is needed. Then the switch
needs to cool more than it otherwise would to pull the contacts apart.
I would replace the fan switch in the radiator before doing anything
That fan runs from time to time even when the coolant is not
overheated. It is designed to prevent overheating, not to correct
overheating once it occurs (though it will do that too, if it comes to
Disconnect the power cable and run a wire from each of the two wires from the fan to the battery. Don't worry about polarity. The fan should run straight away. If it does, your problem is most likely with the sender unit. Check that first then the fuse. The sender unit will be on the block. If your fan won't run, it is the problem, but they are strong so I would be surprised. The clutch fan should be able to cool it at idle. Sometimes the clutch material wears out and they don't engage properly. You can make it run all the time by nipping up the adjusting screws in the front. If it still overheats, you may have a problem thermostat or a clogged radiator.
The resistors are in circuit only on the lower fan speed settings.
On the highest speed setting, power is switched directly to the fan motor.
Check fan power supply fuses,
Check power is available to the fan when high speed selected.
If all above OK, apply power directly to the motor to verify fan motor runs- if it doesn't the motor may need replacement/repair.