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Diesel engines with faulty injectors, poor compression, poor valve seats etc can develop an appetite for starting fluid. Only a thorough investigation of the engine condition will sort these problems. Do this before you do anything else because diesel work is expensive.
There will be 2 reasons. Either the very low level in the tank allowed the pump to pick up some of the sludge that generally accumulates. This would mean a strip down and clean. The other is that you have developed an air lock. This is easier to cure but potentially a bit dangerous to health!! Where the fuel lines feed the injectors, loosen the nuts off, just a bit, to allow any air out. Put new fuel in and try and start the car. DON'T stand near the engine bay as the pressure it comes out of those lines can inject fuel through the skin!! Crank engine until you see fuel escaping on in engine bay. Tighten them up and try and start car properly. If it starts then turn it off and allow discharged fuel to evaporate. After this if it starts but runs "lumpy" chances are still have an airlock in one of the feeds to injectors. DO NOT DO THIS WITH A WARM ENGINE. Be careful of the fuel, at all times
if it starts when you pour fuel in the intake.. then fuel is not reaching the tbi from the tank..you say you put a new fuel pump on this..did you bleed the fuel lines? if not do this because there is an airlock in those lines..either you need to open a fuel line at the tbi unit to bleed it all out.. or be looking at a clogged up fuel filter..
Normally, only 2 things stop a diesel from firing: 1. no fuel 2. not enough compression
No fuel can be caused by (obviously no fuel) or a failed fuel pump. To test, have someone turn the engine over and then sniff at the exhaust - does it smell of unburned diesel? (If you've run out of diesel recently, you may have an airlock in the system, this needs bleeding out.)
Not enough compression needs specialised equipment to test - that's a garage job.