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pull the starter and fix the solenoid or replace the solenoid. It is engaging the armature with out engaging the pinion into the ring gear or the pinion override clutch is failed. Have a reputable auto electrician check it on the bench
If you can hear something turning but your engine is not cranking over either your drive gear on your starter motor is sticking and not engaging or your starter drive and/or flywheel ring gear teeth are worn away. Remove your starter motor and chech the drive gear can be moved. If ti is sticking wind it down and spray it with wd40. Don't be tempted to put grease on it. If it is a pre-engaged motor it could be gear wear or sticking mechanism.
Basically you should have the vehicle's reverse circuit pressure tested by a certified ASE Transmission Repair Shop.They will be able to tell you if there is a blockage in the cricuit, reverse shift solenoid is on its way out ,or a gearing problem even if there is a manual shift valve issue. Good luck
Not the clutch... and maybe not the transmission internals...
Since you mentioned clutch, I assume you have a manual transmission and not an automatic transmission.
In a manual transmission, Reverse is the same gear as first gear, it just runs backwards...
... you may not have fourth gear ... sure?
It may be the linkage immediately on the outside of the transmission.
Look to see if any metal bars are "hsnging down from the bottom of the car. If so, re-connect them using a cotter pin.
Also, spray WD40 or Liquid Wrench on the linkage to loosen them up.
It may be the lube in the transmission. There is a plug on the side of the tranny. Open the plug and feel if there is lube inside. If not, then
find the plate on the side of the transmission and remove it (place a pan under it). Spray WD40 / Liquid Wrench to loosen the gears and levers in the tranny. Close it up and add lubricant (lube).
If by some chance, it is an automatic transmission:
1. Check the fluid level, just in case.
2. It may be the vacuum "modulator" ($20) or a leaking / disconnected vacuum hose anywhere under the hood or at the modulator on the side of the transmission.
Post more info if possible, or comment ...
i had a nissan pickup that would whine in all gears except 4th...it started out with 1st then reverse then went to the rest...solution was new transmission...or rebuild cause the syncronizers or the gears them selves are being chewed up...the new transmission was cheaper then a rebuild. or take it to somewhere that will do free diag on the transmission.
it could be that reverse gear has been partially stripped. when we talk
gears we are literally talking of mechanical gears. sometimes teeth
break off from normal wear and tear, after so many break off the gear
has trouble engaging. you will either have to have the transmission
rebuilt or have new one installed, hope its under warranty this kind of
work can be costly. Most likely this is the problem. If your car is
standard transmission it could be your clutch is having trouble
engaging, but this would also affect forward gears so it is most likely
your reverse gear is missing teeth