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Here's a quote from amy Chilton's manual for 1980-1987.
"Several types of fuel filters are used. One is located in the fuel tank of all the vehicles and is part of the fuel guage assembly. Second is a sealed paper element, in-line unit; mechanical system- located on the engine (above the fuel pump) or electrical system- located in front of the fuel tank. Third is a paper element, in-line fuel filter/vapor separator, housed in a fuel resevoir. Normally, the in-tank filter does not require changing. If it does, the fuel tank must be removed. " This thing you describe sounds like the typical Chrysler in-line filter of its day. It is nothing more than the same generic in-line plastic see-thru filter you buy for your lawn mower except in the 70's and 80's it was covered in metal and had a Chrysler part number. A lot of guys added an extra filter in those days, it wasn't the best system. I would remove the outlet line and turn the fuel pump on, see if you get fuel. Replace if needed.
I understand you replaced the relay but not the pump, right ? Has the fuel filter been replaced recently ? Are you sure there is gas in the tank ? You should be able to jumper the pump relay and check fuel pressure.
If you haven't replaced the fuel filter in the last year or so, do it now-basic maintenance.
Check if the pump is working by turning key to ON (not crank), and listen for the pump in the tank to come on for a couple of seconds. Should hear a short hum or buzz verifying tank is working. If you don't hear it come on, either the pump is bad, or power is not reaching it. May have to pull the pump connector off at tank, and check for 12 volts on pump wire when someone cranks the car. If power there, the pump must be bad. If no power there at pump, check fuses for pump and fuel pump relay.
Running it low and out of fuel may have killed the fuel pump.
When you first turn the key ON, listen for the fuel pump to run for about 2 seconds.
If it does not run it could be a bad pump, relay, ECM or the circuit. Knowing that it was ran out of gas I would bet on the pump being bad.
If it does run it may have a plugged filter from drawing up any sediment from the tank.
the fuel pump uses the fuel as a lubricant. when the fuel tank runs dry the fuel pump can overheat and sieze up. If you have power to your fuel pump plug then you may need to replace the fuel pump. check fuses and relays for the fuel pump circuit. Listen for the fuel pump to come on when you turn the key to the "run" position. Some people have luck by banging on the fuel tank while turning on the key to unstick the pump. don't count on this though.
check for fuel pump hum by the gas tank with the key on, if no hum check fuses and relays (under the hood and dash) if they are good replace fuel pump. if you hear humming try replacing the fuel filter
if you believe some one put water or bad gas in your tank, then you will have to drain the tank. however, to know if you have water in your gas, first disconnect fuel return line or the line that goes in to the fuel pressure regulator put some fuel in a clear glass and let it sit for 15min.if you see white cloud at the bottom of the glass or water. drain the tank. if not check for spark by removing one spark plug wire and spark plug. place the spark plug in the spark plug wire boot and touch it on the metal part of the car. do not touch the spark plug itself only the booth with the plug in the boot. have some one crank the car over. if you see spark, the spark part is ok. but if no spark, check the coil with a volt meter it should be 3 to 8 ohm if not replace the coil. if ok, check for fuel by removing one spark plug or two and see if they are wet,if wet pump is ok. if not check the fuel pump relay and fuse. if fuse is blown replace. check relay with a volt meter. resistance of the relay should be between 40 to 80 ohm. not mega ohm,if mega ohm, replace. if not , listen to the fuel pump while some one is cranking the car. if you donot hear the pump, disconnect the pump electrical connector and applive 12 volt and ground to the pump by using a jumper or any wire and listen for pump sound. if not replace the pump. if there is sound coming from the pump, it is ok. check the fuel pressure regulator with a fuel pressure gauge or simply disconnect the vaccum from the regulator and try starting the car. if fuel pump is ok and spark is ok. then it maybe the computer or the crank position signal. also check the fuel filter it may be clog.