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Re: cylinder 8 missfire
I'm with carfixing, other than you might want to get a 6 volt flashlight bulb and check to see if the computer is firing that injector. Just wire the bulb up so that the two wires are stuck in to the injector connector. The bulb should flash on and off rapidly, if it does, replace the injector. If it does not, repair the injector wiring where the mouse chewed it up somewhere along the harness.
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If there are no symptoms, the first thing to do is to reset the code, with a code reader, and see if it comes back. If there are symptoms such as the engine is stumbling or hesitating, check all wiring and connectors that lead to the affected cylinder and plug/coil assembly. Depending on how long the ignition components have been in the car, it may be a good idea to replace them as part of your regular maintenance schedule. I would suggest spark plugs, spark plug wires, distributor cap, and rotor (if applicable). Otherwise, check the coils (a.k.a. coil packs-COP-). In some cases, the catalytic converter has collapsed. If you smell rotten eggs in the exhaust, your converter may need to be replaced. I've also been told several times that the problem in this case could be a faulty injector at that cylinder 8.
They are the ignition coils, the spark plugs are under them. When you have them off before pulling the spark plugs make sure the holes the plugs are in do not have oil in them, if so you will need new coil boots, plugwires and a valve cover gasket as well.
Replace the coil pack once more. I went through 2 new ones on my f150 on one cylinder. One worked, the other didn't (both new off the shelf). Condensation build up in the boot caused mine to misfire. Anytime you replace a coil pack, squirt a little silicone grease inside. This will prevent condensation from hitting your plug. Fords are notorius for this problem, especially if you live in a humid area. Also, make sure and clear the codes after you make the repair.
You will need to replace no 5 and no 6 coil pack and spark plugs. P0316 is random missfire that computer could not detect the cylinder that was causing it,just knew one was missfiring.
Coil packs are common concern on these vehicles. Can get oil leak into the coil pack wells and may also even get moisture into them.
If yours is a 3.9L it may be involved in owner satisfaction program 07M07 or 07N09 in which they will cover them under the program for up to 10yrs or 100000 miles which ever comes first.
You may need a new wiring harness. They have to be ordered from Germany. This is my guess. (I am having a similar issue with my '94; rough idle, #4 cylinder not firing intermittantly, replaced plugs and 8 ignition coils; new harness is my mechanics guess)