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I assume from the question that the engine is cranking over but will not start. Hence there is no issue with the starter motor on a very cold start.
At 40 degrees F you are getting closer to freezing. When this happens again I would check the operation of the fuel pump.
Take the fuel cap off the fuel tank and have someone switch the ignition on and off a few times. (just the ignition - don't start the engine up). Turn it on for 10 seconds or so and then off. If you listen at the fuel filler opening with the cap off you will be able to hear if the fuel pump starts and stops. If it is working it should start and then stop a few seconds later each time you switch on the ignition because the computer shuts it down in a few seconds if the engine is not started.
If the fuel pump is operating I would be looking for some electrical gremlins. You would need to check that the fuel injectors are getting power and that the spark plugs are also.
Ideally you would need to a quality scan tool connected to the car when you have this very cold no start condition whilst trying to start the car to see what faults may be present because it should pick up some malfunction if the start problem goes away when the temp rises a few degrees over 40F.
Are you topping it off when filling up? We had a Honda Civic that did this. Dealer solution was stop topping the gas off. When it clicks at $69.59, just stop, don't try to get it to $70 worked perfectly.
The powertrain computer turns the fans on through the cooling fan relays, based on information from the coolant temperature sensor. The fans will only come on when the coolant temp. is pretty high-varies by manufacturer, but it is over 200 degrees, some as much as 230 degrees. So the fans will not come on when engine is started, but they should come on before the engine overheats. You should have them checked. Also find out if the temp. gauge sending unit is separate and different from the coolant temperature sensor-on most cars, they are separate, maybe not on yours? Free advice from a shadetree-not worth a lot, eh? lol.
I just fixed this problem o my car, and it costs no more than $20 to fix... replace your thermostat. What happens is that the car reaches a certain temperature and the coolant flows to keep the car cool, well if the thermostat doesn't open at that certain temperature, the car runs how and eventually turns off; causing you to wait until it cools down to be able to turn it back on. The fix took no more than 15 minutes and the car runs great now.
Brake switch is designed to shut cruise off when brake pedal applied, sounds like a defective brake switch, because when she applied the brakes it's supposed to cut power to cruise module, so either that is problem or your throttle cable had iced up and or both
The cooling fans won't run until either the engine coolant temperature reaches about 218 degrees or the air conditioner/defroster are on. Once the engine reaches appx 218 degrees the fan will come on and run until the coolant temperature drops a few degrees and will then turn back off. If either the a/c or defrost are turned on then the cooling fan will begin to run to remove the heat from the a/c system and should stay on until either is turned off. If the engine is overheating in slow or stop and go traffic then the fan may not be working at all due to a bad fan motor or blown fuse.
First check your thermostat. The easy way to do it is take it out and drive without it for a while. If it stops overheating, put a new one in before the weather gets cold. The thermostat lets the engine heat up to a certain temp before opening and letting the coolant through. What your thing actually sounds like is that the electric cooling fan isn't working. Without airflow through the radiator your car will get hot. That's what the fan does, it puts air through the radiator when your car isn't moving. Check your fuses, it could be a really simple fix. Then check the fan switch in the coolant system and the fan motor itself. If those don't do it, it's probably the water pump. Good luck.