There is a sensor that goes from the dash to the fuel pump. If it is disconnected, dirty, or faulty, then thats an easy fix.
There is also a float in the gas tank itself. From what Ive been told after time, or going over big speed bumps, etc, that the float just simply doesnt float or register.
Mine actually shows I have a full tank or im empty at all times. No in between.
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No issues with the fuel guage that I know of , but you can follow the basic troubleshooting guidelines. Starting with the wiring disconnect at the fuel tank for a bad connector or bad connection. Only other connection would be up to the instrument cluster in the vehicle. Only replaceable items would be the guage or the sending unit in the fuel tank. You can disconnect the return line circuit or connector at the at the gas tank and jump a wire to the ground the that feeds the gauge and see if the guage moves, but don't and i repeat don't hold to long because the guage will go over hard over and could damage the guage. If the guage moved and I would suspect a bad float on the sending unit or a bad sending unit, either case the fuel pump assy would have to come out for repairs.
To confirm if the fault is with the Rheostat float within the fuel tank or the fuel guage in the dashbboard, you can remove the wiring to the fuel tank float. If the guage reading changes- to full- then the guage is good and the fault can be a jammed rheostat which can be removed from the tank and replaced after draining the tank. The guage can be tested on the outside with a ground wiring to the plate of the fittings and as the float is moved the guage must show a change in reading. if not the voltage must be measured to confirm the working of the guage.
When testing a fuel guage you should disconnect the wires to it,guage should read over full,ground the float wire,turn off key then turn back on should read empty.You have to cycle the key for guage to move.If still inop the wire is broken in the harness between the tank and the dash.Voltage on the float wire is low.When tested with a test light it will barely light the light and pulsate.This test indicates the wiring is good.
should be a grey wire going to the top of fuel tank connects to fuel guage / when the guage in the tank reads grounded it shows full , no ground it shows empty. if you ground that grey wire and the guage jumps to full then faulty guage if nothing maybe bad ground on the tank itself. the guages are a reostat like a tyco race car gun the more it moves the more it grounds .. good luck
You will need to locate the wire to the fuel sending unit at the fuel tank.
Once you locate the wire, disconnect it and see if the guage goes to 'E". If the guage goes to "E", you probably have a bad sending unit.
To double check, ground the same wire to clean metal on the frame with the key in the "on" position (not running). If the guage does not move, the guage is bad. If the guage moves from E to F, the sending unit needs to be replaced.
1.If the needle on the guage is stuck. you can try tapping the guage to see if the needle moves or turn the ignition on and off a few times to see if you can get it to move. If the guage drops to empty when you turn off the ignition you know that its not the guage. (note that the guage does not drop to zero when ignition is off with all cars of this age).
2. The problem could be with the sensor in the fuel tank itself. Rocking the vehicle up and down from the rear (you will need help doing this) may free the sensor level indicator ball in the tank.