Several GM Trucks (including yours) had a recall on the instrument cluster for doing the same thing. You changing the battery and it happening is really just a coincidence. The warranty extends to 7 years for this from the manufacturer.
Some customers of all 2003-2004 model year and certain U.S. 2005 model year Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV, and Escalade EXT; Chevrolet Avalanche, Silverado, Suburban, and Tahoe; and GMC Sierra, Yukon, and Yukon XL vehicles have reported that one or more of the instrument panel (IP) cluster gauges stick, flutter, or become inoperative. This may cause inaccurate readings, including the speedometer and fuel gauge. Special Coverage Adjustment This special coverage covers the condition described above for a period of 7 years or 70,000 miles (110,000 km), whichever occurs first, from the date the vehicle was originally placed in service, regardless of ownership.
The Technical Service Bulletin is as follows.
Dealers are to replace the instrument panel cluster after the condition has been verified. The repairs will be made at no charge to the customer.
For verified failures between 70,001 miles (110,001 km) and 80,000 miles (130,000 km) on U.S. vehicles, dealers are to provide the customer with an instrument panel cluster (IPC) only. Any additional costs, including labor to replace the instrument panel cluster, will be the responsibility of the customer. Dealers are responsible for the return of the customer's IPC back to the Electronic Service Center.
For vehicles covered by Vehicle Service Contracts, all eligible claims with repair orders on or after September 28, 2007 for 2003-2004 model year vehicles, and March 23, 2009 for 2005 model year vehicles, are covered by this special coverage and must be submitted using the labor operation codes provided with this bulletin. Claims with repair orders prior to September 28, 2007 for 2003-2004 model year vehicles, or March 23, 2009 for 2005 model year vehicles, must be submitted to the Service Contract provider.
If they will not replace it then you may have to and if this is the case here is a YouTube video showing the removal of the cluster. It's for a 2004 but it comes out the same.
This is a major GM mess up. The fix is a new cluster. Sometimes removing the cluster and cleaning the connectors have fixed random folks clusters but in the end a replacement may be necessary. Good luck to you.
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un hooking the battery doesnt reset the computer much with a OBDII system,Its possible if you didnt unhook the battery when changing the odometer that static got into the circuit board.For example:i used to own a 1992 Buick Regal that the odometer wasnt working,i took it to Buick and they could not Fix it,it was under warranty at the time,they paid me $100.00 for me to go away,OK,i bought a book but that didnt help,i accidentally ran a screwdriver across the circuit board with the battery disconnected and saw a spark,after that it worked fine for years.Im assuming that static was the problem.Maybe pull yours out again with the battery disconnected and turn on the key to absorb any stored electricity,and unhook it and reinstall may do the trick.But this may not be the problem or answer to fix it,but its something to try.
I had the problem with my 04 silverado odometer malfunction. There was a recall for this model and year. Took it to the dealer had it fixed for free, you need a new odometer replaced but it only covers warany for 7yrs or 75K miles then its prorated.
sit in the drivers seat close the door. with the key off hold the trip
odometer button in then while holding the button in turn the key on. if
done correctly this will put the MIC (mechanical instrument cluster)
into a self test. if the speedometer does not move like the rest of the
gauges during this test the MIC must be replaced. if the speedometer
does move it is likely your problem will be fixed, however, if the
speedometer does move but it does not start working properly then
further diagnostic will be needed.