It could be any of those things or possibly the fuel pump relay--you will have to troubleshoot a bit to know which one.
Because of what the odometer did, I suspect your problem is actually with the PCM/injectors. The easiest way to test the operation of the fuel injectors is to listen for a clicking sound coming from the injectors while the engine is cranking. This is accomplished using a mechanic's stethoscope, or a long screwdriver. Place the end of the stethoscope or the screwdriver (tip end, not handle) onto the body of the injector. Place the ear pieces of the stethoscope in your ears, or if using a screwdriver, place your ear on top of the handle. An audible clicking noise should be heard; this is the solenoid operating. If the injector makes this noise, the injector driver circuit and computer are operating as designed. If the injectors are not clicking, they are probably not getting a signal from the powertrain control module (computer). This could be caused by a faulty camshaft position sensor. If your check engine light is staying on, there is a fault code stored in the computer that might tell us that, but you would need to have the car scanned to get the code out. My guess is that it is not the sensor but the computer itself.
If you find that the injectors are working, go on to check outher parts of the fuel delivery system as follows:
The fuel pump is inside the gas tank and is also usually sold with the fuel gage sending unit--an expensive and laborious R&R job. If the pump is working, you should hear it at least momentarily when the key is turned to the "on" position. If the pump is not working, the cause could be a fuse, a relay, an accident "kill" switch that needs resetting, or the pump itself. You'll want to rule out all of the inexpensive possibilities first. Use your owners manual (you can often find these online if you don't have the original) to locate the applicable fuse, relay, and/or cutoff switch. To check the relay and ignition switch, follow precedures at http://www.fixya.com/cars/r6022358-relay_check
. You can also check for voltage at the pump connector with a test light.
Assuming your pump works, fuel still needs to get to the engine. A clogged filter will certainly limit fuel flow, but will rarely prevent a car from starting. That said, filter replacement is an inexpensive bit of maintenance. Most likely cause of fuel not getting to the engine when the pump is working is the fuel injection system. Injection systems are beyond the scope of this tip, but there are a couple things you can check. The injectors require a certain level of fuel pressure. Though your pump may be working, it may not be producing pressure. If possible, have your fuel pressure checked or borrow the appropriate tool to test the pressure. Always check pressure at the fuel rail or carburetor, as some designs include a separate regulator that is typically in the line in the engine compartment.
Let me know if you have questions.