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Black smoke is caused by excess fuel that has entered the cylinder area and cannot be burned completely. Another term for excess fuel is "running rich." Poor fuel mileage is also a common complaint when black smoke comes out of the tailpipe. Black smoke out the tailpipe is the least cause for alarm. Excess fuel will usually effect engine performance, reduce fuel economy, and produce a fuel odor.
How did the fuel get into the cylinder in the first place? Some of the causes of excess fuel are a carburetor that is out of adjustment, a faulty fuel pump, a leaky fuel injector, or a faulty engine computer or computer sensor. If black smoke is present, check the engine oil as in the white smoke example to make sure excess fuel has not contaminated it. Do not start the engine if a heavy, raw fuel smell can be detected in the engine oil. Call your mechanic and advise him of what you have found.
I hope this helps you determine what could be causing your engine smoke
The issue is the engine is running rich (too much fuel or not enough air) So the things that you can check are the air filter, oil level, coolant. The rest is determined by diagnostics to see if the turbo is not producing enough compression or the injectors are worn
Not easy this one,when your turbo failed the oil feed to the turbo bearings continued to feed engine oil into the intake side(could not turn off),the engine is then Un-governed and free to rev way above maximum limit,it has then massively over heated, the oil treatments are unlikely to cause this problem ,usually down to not letting the Turbo "wind down " after driving,The best course of action is to replace the engine and turbo charger and have the induction pipes and intercooler properly cleaned ,there are no cheap fixes for this you were just unlucky.
I don't wish to worry you but I think the turbo kicks in at around 2500rpm and it sounds like it isn't doing so, hence the management light coming on. It could be that failing. Be careful here, apparently the turbo uses the engine oil to maintain its operating temperature and if the turbo seals fail in anyway it eats the engine oil, with the resulting total failure of the power unit. So if you do nothing else, keep an eye on the engine oil level. (You may also notice oil smoke out the exhaust as well).
Unfortunately it looks like a trip to the dealer for them to check what the engine management is saying.