Sounds to me like you might have one of two problems, and one is an easy fix, while the other might require a mechanic.
Option 1: Check Your Cables. If you have a loose ground cable, then you might be able to tighten it and reestablish a good ground. Also, check the wiring to your starter and alternator.
Option 2: Check The Starter Solenoid. This one might require a mechanic. It sounds like your solenoid isn't getting enough juice, or it doesn't have enough capacity to fire it off without added current. If this is the case, get your solenoid checked.
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To clarify - - if the engine cranks the battery and starter are ok. The alternator does not come into play until the engine is running. If it cranks but won't start, you have to figure out if you are missing fuel to the injectors or spark to the plugs to proceed. A mechanic would check that and if there are any trouble codes stored in the computer.
could have a bad fuel transfer pump ( block mounted) or air getting into fuel system. This could be caused by a pin hole in the fuel lines ( supply or return) have someone crank it over for you while you press the shrader valeve on the fuel filter housing , see if you are getting fuel or air. Could also be an injection pump problem. Best thing would be to have it checked by a qualified diesel mechanic, as this could be caused by many different things. Kinda costly to throw parts at it on a guess without proper testing
If you look down where the starter is you will see al little round selinoid with to things sticking out that look like screws and have nuts and wires going to them. Take a good gauge wire and jump across them. If the starter does not kick in or spin over then your starter is bad. If it does kick over then there is a good chance that the ignition switch has gone bad.
I would first have the alternator checked by an auto electrician to ensure it is working correctly and is providing the correct volume of current. It may be faulty and when driving you will be drawing battery power instead of power from the alternator to run the electrics. This will drain the battery.
Alternators do not last forever and if you are still running the original unit it is likely to be on it's last legs and you will need a replacement unit.
Charge the batteries. take a Reading to make sure that you are getting almost 14v to both batteries. If it is not charging then take the alternator back off and have them check it. you might have bought a bad one. There is a way to test the glow plus with out taking them out. ( Take a piece of wire long enough to reach all the glow plugs from the battery. unplug the glow plug wire.If you touch the end of the glow plug with the hot wire it should make a little spark. if no spark then the glow plug is bad. do this to each one, but one at a time)