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This issue could be related to several cause's. If your vehicle has high mileage and has not been overheated to the point where the engine shut down due to extreme heat, it could be the radiator that is clogged or tthe cooling fan is not operating. Based on the info you have provided, I would suspect these two areas are the cause.
From what you have described, which is a rapid over heating of the radiator coolant fluid and therefore a hot engine condition, it would appear that the thermostat in the engine's cooling system is faulty.
If the thermostat is sticking in the closed or nearly closed position temporarily, there will be no flow or very little coolant flow between the engine and the radiator and the engine will overheat.
You have advised that after the engine is shut off , and radiator coolant fluid has cooled, you re-start the engine and drive the car without the overheating condition occurring again and the radiator coolant temperature is normal. This time there is no overheating because the thermostat is working normally.
You should have the thermostat replaced as soon as possible because allowing the engine to overheat can cause very expensive engine damage.
If you had a continuing overheating condition then I would suspect both the thermostat and the water pump. However as the overheating seems to be only temporary, and clears itself after you have shut down the engine and re-started it 10 minutes later (without further overheating arising) then I think you only have a faulty thermostat.
Please also check that the electric fans which draw air through the radiator are operating. These run on a temperature sensor and will switch on automatically once the radiator coolant fluid reaches a certain temperature and then switch off again when the fluid temperature reduces. You will hear them running once they start up. If these fans are not working the radiator coolant can quickly overheat in various driving and temperature conditions because there will be insufficient air flow through the radiator to cool the fluid. If the temperature sensor is faulty or has died, or if the electric motors running the fans are faulty, the fans will not operate.
is the fan working? if the fan isnt working it will overheat when idling, as it wont be sucking cold air through the radiator. a quick way to diagnose that your cooling system is fine is when stuck in traffic, turn your heaters onto hot, if the engine temp gauge shows that the engine is cooling down, the cooling system will be fine 9/10 times.
Your cooling system needs to be looked at, also,,if your engine is really overheating badly this could be causing your transmission problems. Aside from that,,i would have the transmission checked also,,just in case.