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Have it tested with a scan tool ,check engine sensor data parameters ! Possible dirty or bad mass air flow sensor ,O2sensor ,Coolant temp sensor, map sensor etc... Check for vacuum leaks , Plugged fuel injectors , dirty throttle plate , also check fuel pressure . Is your check engine light lit ?
the cause of the heavy black smoke is un-burnt fuel. is from excessive fuel pressure, faulty injectors,ignition timing out. If it is a turbo operation then the turbo is not producing the correct boost for the fuel settings . Check turbo for vane actuation . low power comes from overfuelling, low air flow. run the fault codes to see which sensors are out of parameter.
You may not have all the things I list. these are things that will make an engine run rich. ECM, 02 sensors, map sensor, mass air flow sensor, vacuum leaks, throttle position sensor, Clogged air filter, Clogged catalitic converter. You have already replaced the injectors and the ECT , so that rules them out. Check for codes. Start with vacuum leaks. Hoses and the intake manifold gaskets. If you need more info let me know. Randy
If your car is fitted with Manifold Air Pressure sensor (MAP) check that is operating OK. Sometimes if this is as at fault it can send the wrong signal that the engine is running lean and the engine computer (ECU) in turn compensates by injecting extra fuel. The clouds of smoke are unburnt fuel so not only does it look bad but it is wasteful/costly. The fault on a MAP can evolve slowly and therefore evades the computer diagnostics check for some while before being picked up. Also on the list of things to look at are:-
1) the mass air sensor on the air filter ducting
2) the EGR exhaust gas recirculation valve (perhaps needs a thorough clean)
3) the differential pressure feedback exhaust (DFPE) sensor - lies upstream of the EGR but if faulty can combine to lead to errors in fuel injection quantities.
I had a similar issue to this after I got in a VERY small fender bender (literally) in an 87 Turbo Supra. In my case, my pasenger fender got pushed in JUST enough to crack a charge pipe and cause a boost leak.
Basically, what was happening was the turbo would spool and build boost, the mass fair flow sensor would read all this air coming in and tell the ECU to dial up the the appropriate amount of fuel. When the air reached the cracks in the charge pipe, it would escape out of them. Thus there was a much lower air-to-fuel ratio, causing less fuel to combust, which lead to power loss and black smoke out of the exhaust.
My guess is either an oxygen sensor, or more likely a boost leak.
Hi, I have a 2.0HDI Expert which was doing the exact same thing as yours, blowing thick black smoke, sluggish and loss of power on gradients, a hissing sound and surging. I replaced the air flow meter but that didn't help. I was told to replace the turbo but a turbo expoert told me not to as it would blow white smoke if it was faulty. I was then told to replace the injectors but a diagnostic test showed them to be functioning fine. I was then told to look at the intercooler which had thick sludge at the lower left pipe. I replaced it today - Sunday 12th July and it is now driving like a new van. It now pulls me up gradients with ease in 4th and 5th instead of having to drop gear to get to the top. I got a replacement from Euro Car Parts for £147 inc VAT. To tell if this is your problem, look through the gaps in the lower section of the bumper at what looks like the radiator and look for sludge over the inside of the bumper and all over the pipe where it joins the back of the radiator (intercooler). Also open the bonnet and look down behind the grille for the same sludge. Hope this sorts it for you. Barry, Newtownards, Northern Ireland.