Question about 1986 Toyota Pickup 4WD

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Hello, 1986 Toyota 4X4 Truck 22R carb engine manual transmission. My son was driving it and the rear wheels locked up. Driving in 2 High mode. He got the truck pulled over to the side of the road using 4X4 high after locking in the front hubs then called me. I tested clutch, engine etc. Engine runs fine, clutch works. Engage transmission and start to release clutch and tranny binds up, (2 high) rear wheels slightly turn, maybe about 1/8 revolution do not turn fully. the engine bogs down and dies like having the parking brake on and just lugging the engine down. I removed the drive shaft and the rear wheels turned freely, but the transmission appears frozen. I'm thinking the transmission broke a gear and needs a rebuild. Any comments or thoughts of what to check before laying out the money for a rebuild?

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  • Bucky2u Dec 24, 2008

    My 1990 Toy std truck, 2wheel drive, 4 speed manual tranny locked up in the driveway. Gearshift will not go into either 1st or 2nd. 3rd & 4th feel like the engcy brake is on. motor strains to move forward but will not move veh. When gearshift is in what feels like the neutral position the truck backs up when I let clutch out. There is no neutral position, or out of gear. There was no loud pop or bang and no chattering of gear when this happened. It just stuck.

  • Anonymous Mar 21, 2014

    while going down road at 60mph rear wheels locked up tires wouldnt spin until i removed drive shaft pulled diff cover and didnt see anything outta ord ?

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I've seen a similar issue on other transmissions where the shifter slips out of the slots in the shift forks, either due to shifter bushing wear or just general wear on tte trans. It can usually be remedied at least temporarily by popping the shifter top off the trans and resetting the forks all back to nuetral and then reinserting the shifter. It gets jammed when two forks are trying to engage two different gear sets.
On one of the 4x4 sites, they tell you how to replace the shifter bushings, cheap fix if you are lucky.
Good luck.

Posted on Feb 24, 2009

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Honestly, it will be cheaper to get a used tranny from a wrecking yard than it will be to rebuild yours... they are very easy transmissions to change

Posted on Jan 14, 2009

  • thetallguy67
    thetallguy67 Nov 13, 2014

    If you go used, just be sure to get it from a REPUTABLE yard that sells actual 'working' parts, or you'll be paying for full rebuild soon enough anyhow.

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Jack up the rear end and try moving the wheels by hand while in 2 HI, both 1st gear and neutral. If they don't turn fully, disconnect the drive shaft (don't forget to witness mark the flanges!) and try turning wheel and drive shaft individually.. If the wheels move, it's your tranny or transfer case. If the wheel still doesn't move with drive shaft off, your rear differential is most likely the problem.

Posted on Nov 13, 2014

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Where is the four wheel module located on a 2001 f350 7.3 l lariat 4x4 nothing on the four wheel drive works and I checked all the fuses and are all fine


Have it check for DTC'S - diagnostic trouble codes ?
GEM Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Index
GEM Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Index DTC Description Source Action C1728 Transfer Case Unable to Transition Between 2H and 4H GEM CARRY OUT the electronic shift function test. REFER to Function Test - Electronic Shift in this section. C1729 Transfer Case Unable to Transition Between 4H and 4L GEM CARRY OUT the electronic shift function test. REFER to Function Test - Electronic Shift in this section. P0500 Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) Malfunction GEM GO to Pinpoint Test F . P1804 Transmission 4-Wheel Drive High Indicator Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test H . P1808 Transmission 4-Wheel Drive Low Indicator Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test I . P1812 Transmission 4-Wheel Drive Mode Select Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1815 Transmission 4-Wheel Drive Mode Select Short Circuit to Ground GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1819 Transmission Park/Neutral Position Switch Short Circuit to Ground GEM GO to Pinpoint Test F . P1820 Transmission Transfer Case Clockwise Shift Relay Coil Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1822 Transmission Transfer Case Clockwise Shift Relay Coil Short to Battery GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1828 Transfer Case Counterclockwise Shift Relay Coil Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1830 Transmission Transfer Case Counterclockwise Shift Relay Coil Short Circuit to Battery GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1832 Transmission Transfer Case Differential Lockup Solenoid Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test G . P1834 Transmission Transfer Case Differential Lockup Solenoid Short Circuit to Battery GEM GO to Pinpoint Test G . P1865 Transmission Transfer Case Contact Plate Power Short to Ground GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1866 Transmission Transfer Case System Concern - Servicing Required GEM CARRY OUT the electronic shift function test. REFER to Function Test - Electronic Shift in this section. P1867 Transmission Transfer Case Contact Plate General Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test E . P1876 Transmission Transfer Case 2-Wheel Drive Solenoid Circuit Failure GEM GO to Pinpoint Test G . P1877 Transmission Transfer Case 2-Wheel Drive Solenoid Circuit Short to Battery GEM GO to Pinpoint Test G . - For All Other DTCs GEM GO to Section 419-10 .
Your best bet , take it to a qualified repair shop that has the diagnostic tool to trouble shoot .
Principles of Operation
Transfer Case - Electronic Shift
The four-wheel drive, electronic shift-on-the-fly feature electrically shifts the vehicle transfer case between 2WD, 4X4 HIGH, and 4X4 LOW. The system mode is selected by the operator through the mode select switch (MSS) on the instrument panel. The operator is informed which mode the system is in by two instrument cluster indicators, one for 4X4 HIGH which is 4X4, and one for 4X4 LOW which is LOW RANGE (in 4X4 LOW both the lamps are on). Shifts into 4X4 HIGH can be made at any speed. When shifting into 4X4 HIGH with the vehicle stationary, tooth blockage may occur, preventing shift completion. When the vehicle is driven above 8 km/h (5mph) the shift will complete. When shifting in or out of 4X4 LOW, the generic electronic module (GEM) requires that the vehicle speed be less than 5 km/h (3 mph), the brake pedal be applied, and the transmission in NEUTRAL (automatic transmission) or the clutch pedal be depressed (manual transmission). (The digital transmission range [TR] sensor informs the GEM when the automatic transmission is in the NEUTRAL range position.)
The gearmotor encoder assembly is mounted externally on the transfer case. It drives a rotary cam which moves the mode fork and the range fork within the transfer case between the 4X4 HIGH, 4X4 LOW, and 2WD range positions.
The GEM uses two relays to control the gearmotor encoder assembly shift between 4X4 HIGH, 4X4 LOW, and 2WD modes. The GEM controls the pulse vacuum hublock (PVH) solenoid which supplies engagement and disengagement vacuum to control the hublocks.
The GEM accomplishes shifts by interpreting inputs from:
  • mode select switch (MSS)
  • vehicle speed signal (transmitted from the ABS system)
  • gearmotor encoder plate position
  • brake pedal switch
  • digital transmission range (TR) sensor (automatic transmission)
  • clutch pedal position (CPP) switch (manual transmission)
  • ignition switch
Based on these inputs, the GEM controls the shifts into 2WD, 4X4 HIGH, or 4X4 LOW with the following outputs:
  • low to high relay (clockwise)
  • high to low relay (counterclockwise)
  • pulse vacuum hublock (PVH) solenoid
  • gearmotor encoder assembly
The electronic shift-on-the-fly (ESOF) system has a feature which allows the driver to override the vacuum operated hublocks. When the front hublocks are manually turned to the LOCK position, the hublocks are locked at all times, overriding the vacuum operated system. If the front hublocks are manually turned to the AUTO position, the hublocks can only be locked by turning the MSS to 4X4 HIGH or 4X4 LOW position.

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1 Answer

2003 ford f250 superduty 4x4 don't work no indicator light on dash changed4x4 switch module what next?


Check for codes. Usually part stores do it for free. here is how it works.
Principles of Operation

Electronic Shift on the Fly (ESOF) System

The electronic shift on the fly (ESOF) system is an electronic shift system that allows the operator to choose between 2 different 4x4 modes as well as 2-wheel drive. The operator can switch between 2H and 4H mode at speeds up to 88 km/h (55 mph). To engage or disengage 4L, the 4x4 generic electronic module (GEM) requires that the vehicle speed be less than 5 km/h (3 mph), the brake pedal depressed and the transmission in NEUTRAL (or clutch pedal applied on manual transmission vehicles). This system contains pulse vacuum hublocks (PVH). The selector on the hublock, when turned fully counterclockwise to the AUTO position, engages/disengages the hub depending on the driver-selected 4x4 mode of operation. The hublocks also contain a manual override. When the selector is rotated fully clockwise to the LOCK position, the 4x4 vacuum and electronic system used for coupling the front axle to the wheel is bypassed.

The transfer case is equipped with a dual-cone synchronous clutch. This clutch is used to synchronize the front driveline to the rear. All other internals operate in the same manner as the manual shift system. When the mode select switch (MSS) on the instrument panel is turned, the 4x4 module powers the transfer case motor, which activates a shift fork and engages the clutch. When the shift motor reaches the desired position, as determined by the encoder position inputs to the 4x4 module, power to the shift motor is removed. When the transfer case front and rear output shafts are synchronized, the lockup collar mechanically engages the mainshaft hub to the drive sprocket. At this point, the front axle PVHs are engaged. Instrument cluster "4x4" and "Low Range" indicator operation is controlled via hardwired outputs from the 4x4 module.

Electronic Shift Transfer Case

The New Venture Gear NV 273 electronic shift transfer case is a 3-piece aluminium design. The unit transfers engine power from the transmission to the front and rear axles. Under normal driving conditions the unit is in 2-wheel drive high (2H), but when desired, the operator may shift into 4-wheel drive high (4H) or 4-wheel drive low (4L). The transfer case is shifted electronically. The unit is lubricated by a positive displacement fluid pump that channels fluid flow through holes in the mainshaft.

The encoder assembly used for mode indication is of a Hall-Effect type. The system uses a total of 4 independent transistors for mode recognition. Each transistor is associated with a specific range of motor movement. When the circuit to each transistor is closed, a ground path to any of the A, B, C or D encoder pins is accomplished. When the circuit to each transistor is open, the connection to any of the A, B, C, or D encoder pins is pulled to voltage. Mode indication is "decoded" by the 4x4 module based on the varying combinations of signals coming from the transistors.

Hublock Operation

With the hublocks in the Auto position, the 4x4 ESOP system uses timed vacuum sequences to lock and unlock the wheel ends when switching the instrument panel MSS between 2WD and 4x4 modes. A high vacuum level (222 mm or 8.75 in. Hg and greater) is applied to the hublocks to lock the internal spring mechanism that engages (locks) the hublocks for 4x4 mode, and a lower vacuum level (114 to 184 mm or 5.9 to 7.1 in. Hg) is applied to unlock the spring mechanism that disengages (unlocks) the hublocks for 2WD mode. The vacuum signals are supplied to the hublocks by system components, including the 4WD control module or GEM, wiring harness, solenoid, vacuum harness and vacuum seals. As a first step in service, eliminate obvious items such as loose wiring connections, loose vacuum connections or damaged vacuum lines.

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1 Answer

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It sounds as if you have a couple of possible problems. First could be the fuel pump. If yoou disconnect the fuel line, put the line in a jar and crank the engine over, you should get a pint in 15 seconds or so. Also check the pressure, should have around 5 psi. Secondly, you may have a vacuum hose cracked, broken, or leaking. Check your hoses and also the carbureator for leaks.
Hope this helps;
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1 Answer

How do I activate the 4 wheel drive for snow highway driving?


They didn't make Grand Cherokees in '86, so I assume you mean '96?

I'm also assuming it is indeed a 4x4 and not a two wheel drive...sorry, I have to ask!

All the V8's GC's were Quadra-Trac. Please confirm this with what is label on your shifter. If so, it should say "4Hi, N, and 4Lo".

The Quadra Trac system has a viscous coupling. Meaning, that when the rear wheels start to slip, it heats the coupling up, and engages the front wheels.

This system typically put about 95% of the power to the rear wheels, and only about 5% goes to the front during normal driving, so it's essentially in 2wd mode.

When you put the transmission shifter into neutral, and pull your transfer case down to 4lo, then you have all four wheels locked. Do not drive like this on dry pavement.

To answer your questions, the 4x4 should automatically engage when the rear wheels start to slip. It is a seamless transition and you really won't be able to tell.

If you're in real bad snow, then pull it down to 4lo. That'll lock all four wheels in and give you greatest traction.

Drive safe.

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Year, make, engine and model of the vehicle please.

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