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Not sure I follow your wording on the different temps. If the system is full of coolant and working correctly, the thermostat should open at 195 degrees which would be several miles down the road. Once the thermostat opens both radiator hoses should be warm. If the water pump is not working the engine will get hot very quickly.
Have you tried running without the thermostat to see what happens ?
If the cooling system had enough pressure to blow off the top radiator hose, you may have a cracked head or block. I would take the thermostat out and run the engine without it to see how hot it gets and how much pressure it builds up. Be sure and check the radiator cap too.
drain raditor fluid then take off upper and lower hoses and put your house water hose in lower raditor hose and turn on water and let run for about 5 mins. to flush out raditor. then run in top hose to flush back then lower hose again. that should clean it out.
The raditor may be only partly filled or stopped up. once running and warm if you touch the raditor it should be hot about the same all over. if the top part is hot and the bottm is cold then the raditor is stopped up. with the readitor removed and the hoses removed and a good high pressure water hose you might be able to wash it out good enough to get most of it working, don't forget to wash out the fins where the air goes though. a little soap in some sparyed on water and then reinise off good gets the dirt and bug juice off and it'll cool much better If a car comes into my shop and the raditor is more then 5 yeares since it was flushed and it appears to be partly stopped up i recomend it to be replaced. The fan should come on if you turn the aircomnditioner on, and if you let the car sit and run with the hood open it should also come on as the temperture gauge approches the red zone. it should stay on till the gauge is almost down to the middle. it shpuldn't take but a mintue with it just sitting there ideling to cool bach down with the fan running, Is the check engine light on? If it is the codes may indicate a fan relay problem or a overheating problem and you need to follow the rules for fixing those codes. Mixture control problems( codes ) can point out problems with overheating too.
The drag from the transmission and the power assist for the power brakes andthe extra load of the brake lights on the electrical sytem, may accially slow down the altentor lowering the total system voltage, in the long run changing the voltage at the engine sensers, throwing the computers tune of the motor off some.. cars built since 1980 that have fuel injection shouldn't do this very little or none at all. The reason is that the fuel system has an automatic idel speed motor that catches the idel and holds it at the right level no matter what the load. This system has limits and problems that limit it's ability to keep the idel right. Then theres the other way around. There's a vacume leak or other problem making the engine idel too fast and when the loads are added ( power steering , in gear automatic trans, airconditioner, raditor fan ) bring the engine to the correct level and the system will keep it from going any lower.