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Most modern alternators unless of the smart-charging type have just two connections and perhaps a thick ground bonding cable if the machine is rubber mounted.
I suggest you check those connections and ensure the thick cable is in good order and providing a good current path to the battery and the other wire (which is the earthy side of the ignition light) is not shorting to ground which would cause the battery light to remain lit. Disconnecting the wire should put the light out.
If this is your type of alternator and all is ok with the wiring the alternator must be faulty.
If there is more connections than just two it is possibly an older machine sensed alternator that can have another one, two or three wires or if there are several additional wires, especially in a separate multiplug, it could be a smart-charging system where the alternator is fairly conventional but there is influence from the engine management via another small ECU which also controls the battery light.
During periods of acceleration the system prevents the alternator from charging to free extra power from the engine. If there is a fault in the smart-charge system disconnecting the additional multiplug will allow the alternator to charge normally until the system can be repaired.
the relay on gm cars is located on top of the starter , there should be one thick (red) wire connected and a thinner (black) wire connected to a small terminal, thick one goes directly to battery , thin one goes to key switch
Well, according to my diagrams for 88-94 models, the alternator only uses the red and brown. There are pink-black wires that power some of the sensors and solenoids but should go to a fuse marked ECM in the fuse box. Have you tried hooking up the harness without using the pink-black wire ?
You're correct normal voltage range while you're vehicle is running will be around 14.1-14.7v the overcharging slightly has to do with the components inside your alternator. An irregular stator or magnetic brushes for instance. This shouldn't pose as a problem for you. Fyi racing applications most often run a 16v starting/charging setup and the electronic components in those are not affected by the higher voltage levels in anyway.
So, pretty much you have everything plugged in except the grounding. Ground is shared throughout the entire body. The thick black cable from the battery can be connected to the engine block. usually there is a threaded stand off somewhere on the side of the engine. You also need a smaller ground cable connected from the battery to the right front fender. There should be a ground strap that goes from the cylinder head to the firewall and two or three ground wires connecting the computer to the left fender. I generally compliment the system by using a ten gauge or larger wire and run it from the battery ground terminal to the right fender (not cutting the wire but removing insulation, forming a loop, using a short self tapping screw and washer, then connecting it to the firewall at both corners, then up to the computer grounds, then to the cross brace on the radiator then to the engine block. (all connections made as the first so the wire remains as a continuous run...one exception being that the corner at the firewall gets another wire attached with an end loop running through the firewall and attached to the lower rail of the dash frame.) Reason? poor grounding is the primary reason many electronic components fail, and one of the most neglected areas of the entire system. Doing what I outlined ensures that there is always a good alternative ground path that is largely unaffected by corrosion at fender connections etc, Set your system up as I said at the start but consider going further later. I'd also consider using a heavier gauge positive lead than the stock one which is pathetically thin (I use 00 welding cable for that but you don't need to go that far, but the thicker the wire the less the resistance) Good luck
the blower fan is controlled by a module that communicates through data control info from the control panel to the fan control module. in your case the module is attached to the fan motor as one unit. if you unplug the fan you will find three wires in the connector. two thick black and red and one thinner wire, the thin wire is data. you will need to replace the whole fan unit to fix speeds.
Never saw a charging system problem cause anyone to fail inspection. But, overcharging will cook the water out of your battery and can damage the computer system if not taken care of. Overcharge can be caused by either a grounded alternator field wire or a bad regulator. Since the condition appeared after replacing the alternator it too is suspect as an internal grounding can also cause that.